By Helen Fronius
The Goethe period of German literature used to be ruled through males. ladies have been discouraged from studying and scorned as writers; Schiller observed lady writers as common 'dilettantes'. however the try to exclude didn't continuously prevail, and the growing to be literary marketplace rewarded a few women's selection. This learn combines archival study, literary research, and statistical facts to provide a sociological-historical assessment of the stipulations of women's literary construction. Highlighting many authors who've fallen into obscurity, this examine tells the tale of ladies who controlled to put in writing and put up at a time while their efforts weren't welcomed. even though eighteenth-century gender ideology is a vital pre-condition for women's literary construction, it doesn't inevitably ascertain the praxis in their genuine reviews, as this research makes transparent. utilizing various examples from numerous assets, the true tale of ladies who learn, wrote, and released within the shadow of Goethe emerges.
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Additional info for Women and Literature in the Goethe Era 1770-1820: Determined Dilettantes (Oxford Modern Languages and Literature Monographs)
Amalia Holst, ‘Über die Bestimmung des Weibes zur höhern Geistesbildung (1802)’, in Die Frau ist frei geboren: Texte zur Frauenemanzipation, i. 1789–1870, ed. Hannelore Schröder (Munich: Beck, 1979), 163. ⁶⁶ Nicholas Saul, ‘Aesthetic Humanism (1790–1830)’, in The Cambridge History of German Literature, ed. Helen Watanabe-O’Kelly (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 204. ⁶⁷ Christa Kersting, Die Genese der Pädagogik im 18. Jahrhundert. Campes ‘Allgemeine Revision’ im Kontext der neuzeitlichen Wissenschaft (Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag, 1992), 373.
In fact, these sciences appealed precisely because they enabled men (and women) to establish a full view of humanity and its components, the two sexes. Historically, many scientiﬁc notions about the human body were taken up with enthusiasm, even if they were entirely misguided, such as Galen’s conception of the two sexes,⁴⁸ because they accorded well with the values of society at large; whilst others, such as the discovery that women were not entirely passive in the act of conception and contributed an ovum, struggled to ﬁnd acceptance because they challenged perceived notions of gender.
Ist es nicht unverzeihlich, die Hälfte der menschlichen Kräfte ungekannt, ungeschätzt und ungebraucht schlummern zu lassen? (p. 130) He had little faith in male efﬁciency and competence (pp. 216–20), and insisted that women’s contribution would bring ‘dem Staate tausendfältige Früchte’ (p. 214). His uniqueness as contributor to the debate about women’s ‘Bestimmung’ and ‘Geschlechtscharakter’ consists of the fact that, although he shares the basic premise of gender differences, he is of the ﬁrm opinion that women should be fully emancipated, gain full rights of citizenship, and obtain appointments as judges, professors, and civil servants.
Women and Literature in the Goethe Era 1770-1820: Determined Dilettantes (Oxford Modern Languages and Literature Monographs) by Helen Fronius