Download e-book for kindle: When Computers Were Human by David Alan Grier

By David Alan Grier

ISBN-10: 0691133824

ISBN-13: 9780691133829

Prior to Palm Pilots and iPods, computers and laptops, the time period "computer" mentioned the folks who did clinical calculations by means of hand. those employees have been neither calculating geniuses nor fool savants yet an expert those that, in different conditions, may need turn into scientists of their personal correct. "When desktops have been Human" represents the 1st in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch within the heritage of technology and technology.

Beginning with the tale of his personal grandmother, who used to be knowledgeable as a human desktop, David Alan Grier offers a poignant advent to the broader global of ladies and males who did the difficult computational hard work of technology. His grandmother's informal comment, "I want I'd used my calculus," hinted at a profession deferred and an schooling forgotten, a mystery lifestyles unappreciated; like many hugely trained ladies of her new release, she studied to develop into a human laptop simply because not anything else would provide her a spot within the medical world.

The publication starts with the go back of Halley's comet in 1758 and the trouble of 3 French astronomers to compute its orbit. It ends 4 cycles later, with a UNIVAC digital computing device projecting the 1986 orbit. In among, Grier tells us in regards to the surveyors of the French Revolution, describes the calculating machines of Charles Babbage, and publications the reader throughout the nice melancholy to wonder on the gigantic computing room of the Works development Administration.

"When pcs have been Human" is the sorrowful yet lyrical tale of staff who gladly did the tough hard work of study calculation within the desire that they could be a part of the medical neighborhood. in any case, they have been rewarded by way of a brand new digital computer that took where and the identify of these who have been, as soon as, the desktops.

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An important result is that for a regular set of configurations C, both post∗ (C) and pre∗ (C) (the forward and the backward reachable sets of configurations, respectively) are also regular sets of configurations [6, 9]. The algorithms for computing post ∗ and pre ∗ , called poststar and prestar, respectively, take a Pautomaton A as input, and if C is the set of configurations accepted by A, they produce P-automata Apost ∗ and Apre ∗ that accept the sets of configurations post ∗ (C) and pre ∗ (C), respectively [6, 17, 18].

5(a) shows a Boolean program with two procedures and two global variables x and y over a finite domain V = {0, 1, . . , 7}. proc foo n1 x=7 x=3 n2 n bar( ) 3 bar( ) proc bar n7 y=x n4 n5 n6 (a) [[x = 3]] = {((v1 , v2 ), (3, v2 )) | v1 , v2 ∈ V } [[x = 7]] = {((v1 , v2 ), (7, v2 )) | v1 , v2 ∈ V } [[y = x]] = {((v1 , v2 ), (v1 , v1 )) | v1 , v2 ∈ V } n8 (b) Fig. 5. (a) A Boolean program with two procedures and two global variables x and y over a finite domain V = {0, 1, . . , 7}. (b) The (non-identity) transformers used in the Boolean program.

5 summarizes recent work both on improving and on applying WPDS technology. 1 Background Background on Interprocedural Dataflow Analysis Dataflow analysis is concerned with determining an appropriate dataflow value to associate with each node n in a program, to summarize (safely) some aspect Program Analysis Using Weighted Pushdown Systems 27 of the possible memory configurations that hold whenever control reaches n. To define an instance of a dataflow problem, one needs – The CFG of the program. – A meet semilattice (V, ) with greatest element : • An element of V represents a set of possible memory configurations.

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When Computers Were Human by David Alan Grier


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