By Donald Craig Mitchell
The never-before-told tale of Indian Casinos in America
In 2015, 239 Indian tribes operated 478 casinos, high-stakes bingo halls, and different playing amenities on Indian reservations in 28 states that jointly earned $28.5 billion in gross gaming profit. How did Indian playing turn into one of these profitable and general fixture of the yankee panorama? In Wampum, Donald Craig Mitchell tells the never-before-told story.
In 1979, the Mafia opened the nation's first high-stakes Indian bingo corridor at the Seminole reservation in Florida. 9 years later, Indian tribes have been working bingo halls on reservations in 23 states. Congress enacted the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act to topic playing on reservations to law through the government and the states within which the reservations have been situated. yet, whereas individuals of Congress who voted for the invoice did not intend for it to take action, the act facilitated the transformation of Indian bingo halls into what they're today―Las Vegas-style casinos whose gaming flooring include greater than 352,000 video slot and different gaming machines.
On Capitol Hill, Donald Craig Mitchell is a well-known specialist on Indian legislation and historical past, and the one researcher who had early entry to the documents of the committees whose contributors and employees wrote the accounts that grew to become the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. In Wampum, he deals readers the 1st finished examine the forces in Congress and contained in the Bureau of Indian Affairs that experience created the Indian gaming industry.
With nine colour and nine black and white images
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Additional info for Wampum: How Indian Tribes, the Mafia, and an Inattentive Congress Invented Indian Gaming and Created a $28 Billion Gambling Empire
For example, the early Leupp business council met to “report violations” of policy and to “control” other Navajos. Consequently, superintendents had a relatively free hand in implementing policy within their jurisdictions. Navajos resisted this usurpation of power only to a limited degree and on a local level. In some cases they were forcibly suppressed when they did. In the 1920s when oil companies wanted to obtain leases that would allow them to explore the Navajo reservation, in January 1923 the secretary of the interior appointed Herbert Hagerman, who in 1906 had served a brief tenure as governor of the territory of New Mexico, as special commissioner for the Navajos.
And the Seminole Tribe is not alone. In 2015, 239 other groups the BIA says are Indian tribes operated 478 casinos, bingo halls, and other types of gambling facilities in twenty-eight states. 5 billion in gross gaming revenue. The amount of money the tribes are making is astronomical because the demand for what they are selling is insatiable. In all cultures throughout all epochs of human history, human beings have loved to gamble. Six-sided dice called astragali, fashioned from the knuckle bones of sheep, have been found at archaeological sites in Iraq.
As he was on all reservations, on the Navajo reservation the BIA agent was the law. After a series of executive orders added additional land to the reservation, between 1901 and 1908 the BIA divided the Navajo Reservation into five subreservations and appointed an agent for each. Several agents appointed a business council for their subreservations. According to historians Garrick Bailey and Roberta Glenn Bailey: The councils did not function as a tribal government…. Where councils did exist, they did not really govern or even advise, but merely served the interests of the superintendents [as BIA agents would be renamed].
Wampum: How Indian Tribes, the Mafia, and an Inattentive Congress Invented Indian Gaming and Created a $28 Billion Gambling Empire by Donald Craig Mitchell