By Merold Westphal
The query of the transcendence of God has commonly been notion by way of the adaptation among pantheism, which affirms that God is entirely "within" the realm, and theism, which affirms that God is either "within" and "outside" the realm, either immanent and transcendent. opposed to Heidegger's critique of onto-theology and the final postmodern problem for respecting and keeping the adaptation of the opposite, Merold Westphal seeks to reconsider divine transcendence relating to modes of human self-transcendence. Touching upon Spinoza, Hegel, Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, Aquinas, Barth, Kierkegaard, Levinas, Derrida, and Marion, Westphal's paintings facilities round a critique of onto-theology, the significance of alterity, the decentered self, and the self sufficient transcendental ego. Westphal's phenomenology of religion units this ebook into the most currents of Continental philosophy of faith this day.
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Additional resources for Transcendence and Self-Transcendence: On God and the Soul (Indiana Series in the Philosophy of Religion)
We now need to cash in on the ‘‘incubation’’ metaphor and see the deep premodern roots of Leibniz’s modernity. On the one hand, the principle of reason involves giving reasons to validate statements. ‘‘For Leibniz the principle of reason is a Principle for sentences and statements. . The principle of reason is the fundamental principle of the possible and necessary rendering of reasons for a true sentence’’ (PR 22). 41 But he always makes clear that his principle involves causes in the ontological order just as much as reasons in the epistemological order (PR 21–22, 26, 97).
So, while it will not be possible to avoid allusions to ‘‘the difference,’’ I will try to present Heidegger’s critique of onto-theology in terms of the other themes he introduces while trying to think being. All three stages of What Is Metaphysics? 10 In 1929 the contrast is between science and metaphysics. Science is ‘‘a freely chosen attitude [world-relationship] on the part of our human existence,’’ such that ‘‘it and it alone explicitly allows the object itself the ﬁrst and last word. In this objectivity of questioning, deﬁnition and proof there is a certain limited submission to beings so that they may reveal themselves’’ (WM/1929 243; emphasis added).
If Heidegger is to raise doubts about this apparently obvious and decisive difference, it will have to be in terms of the common ground out of which this difference grows. Both premodern and modern ontotheologies are theoretical enterprises, oriented ﬁrst and foremost to knowledge and truth rather than utility and power. If it turns out that premodern ontotheology seeks, in the name of truth and knowledge, to have its ‘‘God’’ at the disposal of human conceptuality, its difference from modernity may not be decisive after all.
Transcendence and Self-Transcendence: On God and the Soul (Indiana Series in the Philosophy of Religion) by Merold Westphal