By Emmanuel le Roy Ladurie, Joseph Goy
The tithe is a levy attribute of the agrarian ancien regime, and is of serious curiosity to historians of conventional societies corresponding to pre-1789 France and different nations of Europe and Latin the USA until eventually the start of the 19th century. Measured and recorded from yr to 12 months, the tithe varieties a trademark which, albeit very approximate, is however tremendous important in revealing the traits in agricultural creation (grain, wine, stockbreeding ,etc.) over sessions of years, many years or centuries. The e-book is in elements. the 1st, by means of Joseph Goy, offers with theoretical questions and the equipment used for learn at the tithe and different linked dues. the second one half, via Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie in collaboration with Marie-Jeanne Tits-Dieuaide, offers an outline of the conclusions reached from the examine of secular fluctuations within the fabricated from the tithe and in different sales from the land. those effects, with regards to the lengthy interval from the fourteenth to the 19th centuries, have been got from the paintings of approximately 100 historians in lots of nations; their aid used to be a necessary aspect within the writing of the publication.
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Additional resources for Tithe and Agrarian History from the Fourteenth to the Nineteenth Century: An Essay in Comparative History
This income came entirely from the countryside, from twenty parishes or priories. The data used cover the period 1558-1769, but there are many gaps. Narbonne: the accounts for the Saint-Just Chapter at Narbonne do not provide us with the total tithe income. So in order to obtain an average for the period 1530-1777, we had to construct an index for each of the twenty-seven priories based on tithe contracts. Aries, Aix and Marseilles: the priories of Marignane, Rognac and Velaux (depending on Saint-Trophime at Aries), Salernes (depending on Saint-Victor at Marseilles), Eguilles and Meyreuil (Saint-Sauveur at Aix) provided us with leases for each five-year period from 1600 to 1785.
By grouping within curves the same area, and then areas in the regions, and by converting all measures into hectolitres and kilograms, Pfister has succeeded in elaborating a model capable of providing us with the rate at which the tithe was levied, the area under cultivation, the yields from seed and the farmer's profit, together with the effects of all these factors on the price of the tithe farms. This method enabled him to pick out zones where correlations were strong, and to formulate hypotheses about the role of certain variables within the general trends.
Agricultural production is only one of the variables, and the data relating to it must be cross-checked against 'non-agricultural series, especially demographic ones, without which it is not possible to make a realistic assessment'. Such caution shows that although the historian must be critical of his sources, his criticism must not become an end in itself. Historians - positivists or pseudo-positivists - who have adopted a hypercritical approach have shown how this merely results in impotence and sterility.
Tithe and Agrarian History from the Fourteenth to the Nineteenth Century: An Essay in Comparative History by Emmanuel le Roy Ladurie, Joseph Goy