By Graham P. Weedon
More and more, environmental scientists, palaeoceanographers and geologists are gathering quantitative files of environmental adjustments (time sequence) from sediments, ice cores, cave calcite, corals and bushes. This e-book explains easy methods to study those files, utilizing user-friendly motives and diagrams instead of formal mathematical derivations. all of the major cyclostratigraphic tools are coated, together with spectral research, cross-spectral research, filtering, advanced demodulation, and wavelet and singular spectrum research. useful difficulties of time-series research are thought of intimately. fresh learn into a number of sorts of tidal and climatic cycles is summarized.
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Additional info for Time-Series Analysis and Cyclostratigraphy: Examining Stratigraphic Records of Environmental Cycles
Many Late Cenozoic deep-sea sediment records can be dated by matching benthic δ 18 O values to a global δ 18 O standard. 3). 3). 3 Requirements for the generation of stratigraphic time series 31 useful for studying environmental cycles with periods of tens of thousands of years to a few million years. Most pre-Oligocene stratigraphic sections currently lack a time scale of sufﬁcient detail to identify gaps and to characterize the accumulation rate variations over periods of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years.
Using a very small interpolation interval does not add high frequency information. Instead, the resulting time series would have a large number of smoothly varying values, and the spectrum would have an unrealistically high Nyquist frequency. A common and sensible choice is to use an interpolation interval close to the mean spacing of the original data. 2, Schulz and Stattegger, 1997). Thus an alternative approach to irregularly spaced data is to use a time-series analytical technique speciﬁcally designed for such series.
2c Aperiodic discrete-signal records Aperiodic discrete-signal records involving variable time steps between layers include measurements of bed thicknesses when there is no reason to suppose that each bed represents a ﬁxed time interval. e. g. , 1991). 3 Constructing time series in cyclostratigraphy Requirements for the generation of stratigraphic time series Not every stratigraphic section can be used for obtaining a time series: three conditions must be met as outlined below. 1 Condition 1 – Consistent environmental conditions In order to be meaningful, the measured variable must have been determined by the same environmental factor(s) throughout the time interval represented by the data.
Time-Series Analysis and Cyclostratigraphy: Examining Stratigraphic Records of Environmental Cycles by Graham P. Weedon