By Michael Meyer
ON the 20 th ANNIVERSARY OF the autumn OF THE BERLIN WALL, MICHAEL MEYER presents A RIVETING EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT OF THE cave in OF COMMUNISM IN jap EUROPE THAT BRILLIANTLY REWRITES OUR traditional figuring out of ways THE chilly warfare got here TO AN finish AND HOLDS vital classes FOR AMERICA'S present GEOPOLITICAL CHALLENGES.
" Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" President Ronald Reagan's recognized exhortation while traveling Berlin in 1987 has lengthy been broadly brought up because the clarion name that introduced the chilly conflict to an finish. the U.S. gained, so this model of background is going, simply because Ronald Reagan stood company opposed to the USSR; American resoluteness introduced the evil empire to its knees.
Michael Meyer, who was once there on the time as a Newsweek bureau leader, begs to differ.
In this terribly compelling account of the revolutions that roiled japanese Europe in 1989, he indicates that American intransigence used to be just one of many elements that provoked world-shaking switch. Meyer attracts jointly breathtakingly shiny, on-the-ground bills of the increase of the team spirit flow in Poland, the stealth starting of the Hungarian border, the Velvet Revolution in Prague and the cave in of the notorious wall in Berlin. however the most vital occasions, Meyer contends, happened secretly, within the heroic stands taken through contributors within the thick of the fight, leaders comparable to poet and playwright Vaclav Havel in Prague; the Baltic shipwright Lech Walesa; the quietly made up our minds reform best minister in Budapest, Miklos Nemeth; and the guy who privately learned that his empire used to be already misplaced, and determined -- with braveness and intelligence -- to allow it move in peace,Soviet common secretary of the communist get together, Mikhail Gorbachev.
Reporting for Newsweek from the frontlines in japanese Europe, Meyer spoke to those avid gamers and numerous others. along their planned interventions have been additionally the happenstance and human errors of heritage which are continually current whilst occasions speed up to breakneck pace. Meyer captures those heady days in all in their wealthy drama and unpredictability. In doing so he presents not only an exhilarating chronicle of crucial yr of the 20 th century but in addition a very important refutation of yankee political mythology and a triumphal false impression of historical past that seduced the us into the various intractable conflicts it faces this present day. The 12 months that modified the World will swap not just how we see the earlier, but additionally our realizing of America's future.
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Extra info for The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall
62, 74, 77, 83), Hans Eyvind Næss (1994, pp. 68–70) and Erling Sandmo (1999, pp. 218f) all agree that violence decreased rapidly in Norway during the seventeenth century. There is less statistical evidence from Denmark, but at least some Danish historians, such as Jens Christian V. Johansen and Henrik Stevnsborg (1986), maintain that the level of violence fell rapidly in Denmark during the seventeenth century. A more recent Scandinavian survey including further empirical evidence generally supports these conclusions (Ylikangas, Johansen, Johansson & Næss, 2000, pp.
2005). Der Gewaltbegriff. In W. Heitmeier und J. ), Internationales Handbuch der Gewaltforschung (pp. 26–57). Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag. Jackman, M. (2002). Violence in social life. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 387–415. Levi, M. & M. Maguire (2002). Violent crime. In: The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (pp. 795–843). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Litke, R. F. (1992). Violence and power. International Social Science Journal, 44, 2, 173–183. Lukes S. (1979). On the relativity of power.
Instead of or in addition to physical injury; violence can have mental (‘psychological’), social and/or material consequences and there is seems no simple relationship between the apparent severity of a violent act and the impact it has upon the victim. Violence is socially constructed because who and what is considered as violent varies according to specific socio-cultural and historical conditions. Violence as an Essentially Contested Concept 29 While legal scholars may require narrow definitions for punishable acts, the phenomenon of violence is invariably more complex in social reality.
The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Michael Meyer