The Triumph of the Dark: European International History, by Zara Steiner PDF

By Zara Steiner

ISBN-10: 0199212007

ISBN-13: 9780199212002

During this magisterial narrative, Zara Steiner strains the twisted highway to battle that begun with Hitler's assumption of strength in Germany. overlaying a large geographical canvas, from the US to the a ways East, Steiner offers an necessary reassessment of the main disputed occasions of those tumultuous years.

Steiner underlines the far-reaching outcomes of the good melancholy, which shifted the initiative in foreign affairs from those that upheld the established order to those that have been motive on destroying it. In Europe, the l930s have been Hitler's years. He moved the foremost chess items at the board, forcing the others to reply. From the beginning, Steiner argues, he meant conflict, and he time and again gambled on Germany's destiny to procure the mandatory assets to meet his continental targets. in simple terms conflict may have stopped him-an unwelcome message for many of Europe. Misperception, miscomprehension, and misjudgment at the a part of the opposite nice Powers leaders opened the way in which for Hitler's repeated diplomatic successes.

It is ideology that special the Hitler period from past struggles for the mastery of Europe. Ideological presumptions created fake pictures and raised obstacles to realizing that even reliable intelligence couldn't penetrate. in simple terms while the leaders of england and France discovered the dimensions of Hitler's ambition, and the problem Germany posed to their nice energy prestige, did they eventually claim conflict.

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Example text

The Russians moved uneasily, unwilling to shut the door on future Reichswehr–Red Army contacts and unsure of the value of the difficult rapprochement with France as a counter-weight. III For Hitler, the first priority was the establishment of the Nazi regime. It was only when the state became stronger and its people properly educated that an active foreign policy was possible. It was essential to concentrate on short-term objectives and to avoid any discussion of longer-term aims that would alienate some at home and alarm Germany’s neighbours.

Gilbert, Sir Horace Rumbold (London, 1973), 367. 12 Jean-Baptiste Duroselle, La decadence, 1932–1939, 2nd edn. (Paris, 1979), 61. B ROW N D AWN 23 purged of the most offensive paragraphs, was available—it would have been difficult to take its message seriously. It was not until 23 April 1933 that Rumbold called attention to Hitler’s long-term goals as outlined in this ‘blood and thunder book’. In a 5,000 word report later referred to as the ‘Mein Kampf despatch’, the ambassador picked out the Lebensraum sections for special attention without fully grasping its central position in Hitler’s thinking.

B ROW N D AWN 19 The Rhineland re-occupation confirmed his belief that despite its numerically superior army, France would never act without Britain. II Whereas, in retrospect, it is clear that Hitler’s appointment as chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933 was a decisive change in German and European politics, this was not so obvious to contemporaries. Few Germans were in any doubt about Hitler’s message or the Nazi tactics used to win support and crush opposition but much of the Nazi programme, apart from its anti-Semitic and anti-Bolshevik message, was clothed in generalities.

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The Triumph of the Dark: European International History, 1933-1939 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) by Zara Steiner

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