By David J.K. Balfour, Marcus R. Munafò
The basic goal of this publication and its significant other quantity The Neuropharmacology of Nicotine Dependence is to discover the ways that contemporary experiences on nicotine and its function in tobacco habit have opened our eyes to the psychopharmacological homes of this special and interesting drug. whereas the current quantity considers the molecular and genetic elements which impression behavioral responses to nicotine and the way those might impression at the position of nicotine in tobacco dependence, the e-book The Neuropharmacology of Nicotine Dependence makes a speciality of the advanced neural and mental mechanisms that mediate nicotine dependence in experimental animal versions and their courting to tobacco dependancy in people.
These volumes will supply readers with a latest assessment of present study on nicotine psychopharmacology and its function in tobacco dependence from leaders during this box of analysis and should with a bit of luck end up precious to people who are constructing their very own learn programmes during this vital topic.
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Extra info for The Neurobiology and Genetics of Nicotine and Tobacco
2012), by permission of Oxford University Press These ﬁndings replicate and extend previous work by Keskitalo et al. (2009), who found that rs16969968 accounts for *1 % of the variation in self-report measures of smoking quantity, compared to *4 % of the variation in levels of cotinine. The key observation in these studies is that carefully designed and well-characterised phenotypes offer greater measurement precision. They provide a ‘cleaner’ genetic signal, and improve the likelihood of effect replication.
In contrast to studies that provide total heritability estimates, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies are designed to focus on the influences of speciﬁc genes. Such studies have been used to identify genetic risk and/or protective factors for smoking behaviors. The present chapter will outline sources of variation in smoking behaviors stemming from genetic variation in nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways. Gene variants that alter the metabolism and renal clearance of nicotine, as well as CNS response to nicotine, including variation in the cholinergic, Dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems, will be discussed.
2008), who noted that the association between the same locus and total nicotine equivalents (an extremely accurate measure of nicotine exposure, encompassing nicotine, cotinine, related glucuronides, and 3-hydroxycotinine) was also robust for adjustments made for self-reported daily cigarette consumption. Munafò et al. , how a cigarette is smoked: number of puffs per cigarette, volume of smoke inhaled and so on). Genetics of Smoking Behaviour 29 Fig. 3 Meta-analysis of association of rs1051730/ rs16969968 risk allele with two measures of heaviness of smoking in current smokers.
The Neurobiology and Genetics of Nicotine and Tobacco by David J.K. Balfour, Marcus R. Munafò