Read e-book online The Medieval Manichee: A Study of the Christian Dualist PDF

By Steven Runciman

ISBN-10: 051159951X

ISBN-13: 9780511599514

ISBN-10: 0521061660

ISBN-13: 9780521061667

ISBN-10: 0521289262

ISBN-13: 9780521289269

A reissue of Sir Steven Runciman's vintage account of the Dualist heretic culture in Christianity from its Gnostic origins, via Armenia, Byzantium, and the Balkans to its ultimate flowering in Italy and Southern France. the executive possibility that early Christianity needed to face got here from the heretical Dualist sect based within the mid-third century advert through the prophet Mani. inside a century of his demise Manichaean church buildings have been confirmed from western Mediterranean lands to japanese Turkestan. although Manichaeism failed in spite of everything to supplant orthodox Christianity, the Church have been badly apprehensive; and henceforth it gave the hated epithet of 'Manichaean' to the church buildings of Dualist doctrines that survived into the overdue center a long time.

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It clearly indicates a connection with Paul; but the usual adjective formed from Paul would be Pauline, or Paulian. The inserted "ic" betrays an Armenian origin. In Armenian Paulikios would be a rather contemptuous diminutive for Paul. 4 But who was Paul? The Greek story was that the Paulicians took their name from Paul and John, the sons of Callinice, a Manichaean woman of Samosata. 5 This suggestion is more ingenious than probable. Presumably the Greeks derived their story from a Paulician source; Callinice and her sons must have been figures of Paulician tradition.

5 Eznik of Kolb (ed. Venice), pp. 116-17. 6 Samuel of Ani, ad arm. 588: Kirakos (writing in the thirteenth century), Opera Armenice (ed. Venice, p. 29), mentions Nestorian and Manichaean books indiscriminately as having been introduced into Armenia in 588. 28 The Paulicians But the two sects that seem most to have worried orthodox preachers were the Messalians and a more mysterious body called the Borborites. In 447 a great synod of the Armenian church was held at Shahapivan, largely to deal with the problem of the Messalians.

In the Arab Empire the Orthodox Church held proudly on, weakened, but conscious of being the Church of the Orthodox Emperors, the champions of Christendom; but only the richer of the heretical churches could survive, the Copts in Egypt, the Jacobites and Nestorians in Syria. Even in the still Christian lands of Asia the Arab advance had its religious effect. Many people felt that the Church had been inadequate and was in need of reform. The taste of the time for Puritanism, the taste which had made the spread of Islam so rapid, was reflected in Christian Church politics.

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The Medieval Manichee: A Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy by Steven Runciman

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