By Steven C. Hahn
Drawing on archaeological facts and often-neglected Spanish resource fabric, The Invention of the Creek state, 1670–1763 explores the political heritage of the Creek Indians of Georgia and Alabama and the emergence of the Creek state in the course of the colonial period within the American Southeast. partly a research of Creek international kinfolk, this publication examines the production and alertness of the “neutrality” policy—defined the following because the Coweta solution of 1718—for which the Creeks have lengthy been recognized, in an period marked via the imperial fight for the yank South.
Also a learn of the tradition of inner Creek politics, this paintings exhibits the endurance of a “traditional” kinship-based political process during which city and extended family association remained supremely vital. those traditions, coupled with political intrusions via the region’s 3 eu powers, promoted the unfold of Creek factionalism and mitigated the advance of a local Creek Confederacy. yet whereas traditions persevered, the fight to take care of territorial integrity opposed to Britain additionally promoted political innovation. during this context the territorially outlined Creek kingdom emerged as a felony inspiration within the period of the French and Indian struggle, as imperial guidelines of an prior period gave strategy to the territorial politics that marked the start of a brand new one.
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Extra info for The Invention of the Creek Nation, 1670-1763 (Indians of the Southeast)
As a result, the “Apalachicolas,” as the Spanish referred to them, established two mission towns—Sabacola and Sabacola el Grande—on the southern frontier of the Apalachicola province before the year 1675 drew to a close. Spain’s inﬂuence among the Apalachicolas, then, appeared to be on the rise on the eve of English contact. 48 As it concerned Coweta, the founding of South Carolina in 1670 proved to be a pivotal event in the town’s history. 0pt ——— Norma PgEnds , (2 tall coweta • 31 Oliver Cromwell.
62 The expulsion of the friars in the fall of 1679 thus appears to coincide with an observable shift in the region’s political dynamics, with Coweta and its northern allies temporarily gaining the upper hand over Apalachicola. We should be careful, however, not to assume that the chief of Coweta had entirely consolidated his authority, for the Spanish did not yet recognize him as a “grand cacique” and scant evidence suggests that he was known as “emperor,” as he would be in later years. Still, Florida ofﬁcials began to take note of the Coweta chief’s rising inﬂuence and had clearly singled him out as the leader of a faction that was ill-disposed toward Catholic and Spanish inﬂuence.
As the cult of the Mississippian chiefs waned and as new groups coalesced, this dual structure was expanded to delegate political authority to recently incorporated groups, potentially giving every inhabitant (or every male inhabitant, at least) some say in village affairs. Delegating at least some local authority to secondary clans was not only the politically expedient thing to do but may have been necessary due to the fact that Creek clans were exogamous (meaning those reckoned to be members of the same matrilineal clan and other closely afﬁliated clans of the same moiety were prohibited from intermarrying).
The Invention of the Creek Nation, 1670-1763 (Indians of the Southeast) by Steven C. Hahn