By Lionel Bender, Facts on File
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Extra info for The Facts On File Illustrated Guide To The Human Body: Cells and Genetics
Phospholipids A double layer, about 5 nm thick, of phospholipid molecules comprises much of the cell membrane. Phospholipids are modified lipids (fats) that contain phosphorus. They are divided into two main parts: a head and a tail. As the polar heads are waterseeking (hydrophilic) and the nonpolar tails are water-repelling (hydrophobic), the phospholipid molecules orient themselves with their heads pointing outward and their tails in contact. Proteins Intrinsic proteins pass through the membrane and protrude on either side.
Tight junctions between epithelial cells are formed only between those parts of the cell junctions near the free surface. Functions Cells that transport substances across their cell membranes have tight junctions. For example, the cells that line the intestine absorb nutrients through pores in the exterior surface of the cell membrane. The nutrients then move through the cell and out another pore to the extracellular matrix on the other side of the cell, and then into a blood vessel. The entry pores must be kept separate from those that allow passage out of the cell for this process to work efficiently.
Gives strength and protection to tissues. • Provides a framework in which tissues can develop and cells can move. • Allows communication with and between cells, for example via hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signal molecules contained in the ECM. Connective tissue • This consists of cells within a relatively large amount of extracellular matrix. • Examples include cartilage, bone, tendon, and adipose (fat tissue). • The components, and the properties, of connective tissues vary according to their position and function.
The Facts On File Illustrated Guide To The Human Body: Cells and Genetics by Lionel Bender, Facts on File