Download e-book for iPad: The Evolution of the Human Head by Daniel E. Lieberman

By Daniel E. Lieberman

ISBN-10: 0674046366

ISBN-13: 9780674046368

In a single feel, human heads functionality very similar to these of alternative mammals. We use them to bite, scent, swallow, imagine, listen, etc. yet, in different respects, the human head is kind of strange. not like different animals, even our nice ape cousins, our heads are brief and vast, very mammoth brained, snoutless, principally furless, and perched on a brief, approximately vertical neck. Daniel E. Lieberman units out to give an explanation for how the human head works, and why our heads advanced during this mainly human method.

Exhaustively researched and years within the making, this leading edge e-book records how the various elements of the top functionality, how they developed considering that we diverged from the apes, and the way they have interaction in different methods either functionally and developmentally, inflicting them to be hugely built-in. This integration not just allows the head’s many devices to deal with one another as they develop and paintings, but in addition allows evolutionary swap. Lieberman indicates how, while, and why the main variations obtrusive within the evolution of the human head happened. The distinct manner the top is built-in, Lieberman argues, made it attainable for a couple of developmental shifts to have had common results on craniofacial development, but nonetheless enable the top to operate exquisitely.

this is often the 1st publication to discover intensive what occurred in human evolution through integrating ideas of improvement and practical morphology with the hominin fossil checklist. The Evolution of the Human Head will completely switch the learn of human evolution and has frequent ramifications for brooding about different branches of evolutionary biology.

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1. Different types of skeletal tissues. Cartilage is poorly organized, less mineralized than bone, and higher in water content. Bone comes in many different histological categories. With the exception of woven bone (which is rare in the adult skull, except following injury), most bone is organized in layers known as lamellae. The bone surrounding the cranial vault is often organized in parallel layers. Osteonal bone is formed of organized concentric layers around a central vascular channel; trabecular (spongy) bone consists of very small layers organized into interconnecting struts.

1991). Most common in the skull is circumlamellar bone, which osteoblasts deposit slowly in layers (3–10 µm thick) from the membranes surrounding each bone. More rapidly formed layers of bone, with more vascular channels, are called plexiform. In section, plexiform bone looks like a brick wall, because it has a threedimensional interlacing network of vascular canals in multiple directions. 1). Osteons sometimes form new, primary bone around blood vessels, but they are most common as secondary osteons.

Instead, they occur in an iterative and integrative fashion through many 37 the evolution of the human head 38 interactions among multiple cell types, both within and between regions, as well as from various stimuli from the environment, including mechanical loading. Given the especially important biomechanical functions of bone, we will discuss separately the effects of mechanical loading on skeletal growth. Patterning Studies of gene expression in chicks, mice, and other creatures combined with analyses of human skeletal growth disorders provide a general framework of the early stages of skeletal growth that determine the position and identity of precursor tissues.

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The Evolution of the Human Head by Daniel E. Lieberman

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