Download PDF by Michael Roberts: The Age of Liberty: Sweden 1719-1772

By Michael Roberts

ISBN-10: 051156273X

ISBN-13: 9780511562730

ISBN-10: 0521320925

ISBN-13: 9780521320924

ISBN-10: 0521527074

ISBN-13: 9780521527071

After three-quarters of a century during which Sweden have been reckoned as one of many nice powers of Europe, it fell virtually in a single day into the location of being one of many weakest. but when in foreign affairs this was once a interval of decrepitude, in family affairs it used to be a interval of exceptional achievements. among 1720 and 1772 Sweden had the main complicated structure in Europe. international observers looked her as 'the freest state within the world'. To an research of the foundations and perform of the structure, and of the character and functioning of Swedish events, the primary chapters of this ebook are committed. the ultimate bankruptcy makes an attempt to give an explanation for why it was once that during 1772 Gustav III was once so simply in a position to carry the Age of Liberty to an finish, and why an egalitarian social revolution, which had appeared impending, used to be briefly aborted through his coup d'état.

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But (and it was characteristic) it entailed no breach with Russia: the treaty of 1724 still stood, though the considerations which had dictated its acceptance had by this time disappeared. The disintegration of the Anglo-French entente which followed upon the second Treaty of Vienna in 1731 put an end to this satisfactory state of affairs. It confronted Horn with the possibility of having to choose between the two allies of 1727, and it cut off the subsidies which had come from London and Paris in the previous four years.

Jahrhunderts', Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenchaft, 11-v, vn (1889-92); Otto Brandt, Caspar von Saldern und die nordeuropdische Politik im Zeitalter Katharinas II (Erlangen-Kiel 1932); idem, 'Das Problem, der "Ruhe des Nordens" im 18. Jahrhundert, Historische Zeitschrift 140 (1929); and the convenient orientation in the Introduction to Recueil des Instructions donnees aux Ambassadeurs de France. Danemark. (Paris 1895). THE PREDICAMENT OF A MINOR POWER 31 On the death of Ulrika Eleonora in 1741 the choice of a successor to Frederick I (who had no legitimate children) became - or was made to become - urgent.

35 This did not mean, however, that for most of the period Sweden lost all freedom of choice, or that her foreign policy was not in some senses her own. The conclusion of a subsidy-treaty, or an alliance, in itself involved a choice: it could represent an option between two 32 As Baron Bunge remarked in January 1770: Daniel Tilas, Anteckningar och brevfrdn riksdagen 1769-1770, ed. Olof Jagerskiold (Stockholm 1976), p. 422. 33 PRO, SP 91/74/118, Sandwich to Buckinghamshire, 20 November 1764. 34 Such a comparison was made at the request of successive Secretaries of State several times between 1764 and 1772: Michael Roberts, British Diplomacy and Swedish Politics, 1758—1773 (1981), pp.

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The Age of Liberty: Sweden 1719-1772 by Michael Roberts

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