By B.S. Murty, P. Shankar, Baldev Raj, B B Rath, James Murday
This ebook is intended to function a textbook for rookies within the box of nanoscience and nanotechnology. it may possibly even be used as extra interpreting during this multifaceted zone. It covers the whole spectrum of nanoscience and expertise: advent, terminology, ancient views of this area of technological know-how, distinctive and commonly differing houses, advances within the numerous synthesis, consolidation and characterization strategies, purposes of nanoscience and know-how and rising fabrics and technologies.
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Extra info for Textbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Hence, there is so much more to learn from nature, even in fundamental aspects of synthesis and functioning of nanomaterials. 7 CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS With so many achievements already realised, it is perhaps pertinent to ask “Where is nanotechnology heading”? It is envisaged that nanotechnology will lead to tiny robotic devices, utilizing nanoelectronics, sensors and MEMS/NEMS for in-vivo monitoring and diagnosis of electro-optic deficiencies and malfunctions of human systems. Yet, the current applications of nanotechnology are much more mundane: stain-resistant trousers, better sun creams, tennis rackets reinforced with carbon nanotubes!
When the grain size is smaller than about 20 nm, the total volume of the intercrystalline region (grain boundary and triple junctions) becomes significant. The density of grain boundaries in nanocrystals is very large (~ 1019 cm–3) and there is wide distribution of interatomic spacing at these grain boundaries. It has been suggested that the triple junctions can be described based on the disclination defect model. Disclinations (Fig. 2) are line defects characterised by a rotation vector ω in contrast to the translational vector b for dislocations.
Si in Fe is almost negligible up to a crystallite size of Fe of about 20 nm, below which there is a sudden dissolution of Si. The figure also shows that this solubility can be correlated to the grain boundary volume in nanocrystalline materials, which follows a similar trend. It has also been possible to alloy conventionally immiscible systems by optimising the process conditions to achieve nanocrystalline grains. 3 gives the extension of terminal solid solubility achieved on nanocrystallization by mechanical alloying (high-energy ball milling technique).
Textbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology by B.S. Murty, P. Shankar, Baldev Raj, B B Rath, James Murday