By G. Mason, J. Rushen
This second version is an entire re-write of the first variation in 1993. It displays advancements in wisdom because the 1st version and contains many new chapters and participants. obstacle over the welfare of limited animals is continuous to extend and extends not just to farm and zoo animals, but in addition to laboratory and spouse animals. This booklet specializes in environmentally precipitated stereotypes, instead of drug brought on or neurologically established stereotypes and discusses why captive animals practice those stereotypes. It additionally examines what this behaviour can let us know approximately animal welfare, strategies for prevention and remedy and assesses destiny examine instructions and implications for animal welfare.
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Extra info for Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare
1. Introduction Repetitive, seemingly functionless oral and oro-nasal activities are prevalent in captive ungulates. Indeed in contrast to other taxa, they are this group’s typical abnormal behaviour (see Fig. 2, Chapter 1, this volume). Common examples include bar-biting and sham-chewing by sows, tongue-rolling by cows and crib-biting by stabled horses. g. g. , 2001a). These behaviours have long caused concern, for both practical and welfare reasons. g. , 1986), reduce weight gain (Bergeron and Gonyou, 1997) and perhaps exacerbate the effects of food restriction on hunger levels (Rushen, 2003).
1. The natural foraging biology of ungulates The obvious foraging characteristic shared by ungulates is herbivory (although pigs are more correctly omnivores). g. g. Van Soest, 1994), in general herbivory has several broad implications for how they naturally find and process food. The first is that because vegetation typically needs bulk-ingestion for nutrient gain, ungulates naturally spend many hours foraging. g. Fraser and Broom, 1990). , 1996; Ginnett and Demment, 1997). , 1998). Stereotypic Oral Behaviour in Captive Ungulates 25 60 50 40 30 20 10 4 to 6 2 to 4 0 to 2 22 to 24 20 to 22 18 to 20 16 to 18 14 to 16 12 to 14 10 to 12 8 to 10 0 6 to 8 % Stereotypies/2-h observation periods (a) Time of day (h) (b) 100 Pace Oral % Scans 80 Feed 60 40 20 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 Time of day (h) 14 15 Fig.
G. Robbins, 1993; Van Soest, 1994). The rumen is the first chamber, and is a fermentation ‘vat’ of active bacteria, protozoa and fungi. Digesta is processed further in the reticulum, from which it is regurgitated as ‘cuds’. g. Schmidt-Nielson, 1997). This type of digestive apparatus has several behavioural implications. g. occupying 6–8 h/day in cattle (Phillips, 2002); interestingly, such rumination can be accompanied by non-REM sleep (reviewed by Tobler and Schweirin, 1996). g. Newman, in press).
Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare by G. Mason, J. Rushen