By The International Agency for Research on Cancer
Evaluates the carcinogenic hazards to people posed by way of 4 antiretroviral brokers 4 DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors utilized in the remedy of melanoma and an extra 3 pharmaceutical brokers (hydroxyures phenolphthalein and nutrition ok substances). the quantity marks the 1st IARC overview of nucleoside analogs that act as antiviral brokers. The overview responds partly to fresh findings that zidovudine (AZT) an efficient antiretroviral agent now being given to pregnant HIV-infected ladies to avoid maternal-to-fetal transmission of the virus is a transplacental carcinogen in mice. the outlet monograph evaluates the carcinogenicity to people of the antiretroviral nucleoside analogs zidovudine (AZT) zalcitabine (ddC) and didanosine (ddI) and the antiherpesvirus drug aciclovir. of those aciclovir and didanosine couldn't be categorized at the foundation of obtainable info. For zidovudine transplacental management to mice led to an elevated prevalence and multiplicity of lung and liver tumours and in an elevated occurrence of woman reproductive tract tumours in a single examine yet now not in one other regarding remedy at a decrease dose. regardless of remark of poisonous results in a few experiences of people human carcinogenicity info have been judged to supply insufficient facts of carcinogenicity in people. Zidovudine used to be categorised as potentially carcinogenic to people. comparable weaknesses in human carcinogenicity facts for zalcitabine which always induces thymic lymphomas in mice ended in its category as probably carcinogenic to people. the second one monograph evaluates 4 DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors: etoposide teniposide mitoxantrone and amsacrine. of those etoposide - the most established and potent cytotoxic medicinal drugs together remedy - was once categorized as most likely carcinogenic to people and etoposide together with cisplatin and bleomycin used to be judged to be carcinogenic to people. Teniposide was once categorized as most likely carcinogenic to people and mitoxantrone and amsacrine have been categorised as very likely carcinogenic to people. Of the 3 pharmaceutical brokers evaluated within the ultimate monograph hydroxyurea that's regular in melanoma remedy and more and more together with didanosine in HIV an infection couldn't be labeled. Phenolphthalein a standard laxative now being withdrawn from the industry in lots of nations due to toxicological issues was once categorized as very likely carcinogenic. diet ok components couldn't be labeled at the foundation of accessible proof.
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Extra info for Some Antiviral and Antineoplastic Drugs and other Pharmaceutical Agents, Volume 76 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans)
This inference is based on the transplacental carcinogenicity of zidovudine (AZT), the most widely used such agent, in mice. Approximately 7000 HIV-positive women in the USA become pregnant yearly (Mofenson, 1998), and most receive antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. While the situation is similar in other developed countries, most developing countries are currently unable to offer these therapies because of their cost. The number and complexity of antiretroviral drug regimens given to HIV-positive pregnant women is increasing, and the potential carcinogenic risk to children exposed in utero may become apparent only many years after birth.
Res. , King, G. H. (1996) An Mll-AF9 fusion gene made by homologous recombination causes acute leukemia in chimeric mice: A method to create fusion oncogenes. , Schliozberg, J. L. (1997) Zidovudine, didanosine, or both as the initial treatment for symptomatic HIV-infected children. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study 152 Team. New Engl. J. , 24, 1704–1712 Felix, C. & Lange, B. (1999) Leukemia in infants. J. & Malkin, D. (1996) The p53 gene in pediatric therapy-related leukemia and myelodysplasia.
A. E. Wasserman (1978) Vol. 2. Methods for the Measurement of Vinyl Chloride in Poly(vinyl chloride), Air, Water and Foodstuffs (IARC Scientific Publications No. 22). M. Squirrell & W. Thain (1978) Vol. 3. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Samples (IARC Scientific Publications No. 29). Edited by M. Castegnaro, P. Bogovski, H. A. Walker (1979) Vol. 4. Some Aromatic Amines and Azo Dyes in the General and Industrial Environment (IARC Scientific Publications No. 40). Edited by L.
Some Antiviral and Antineoplastic Drugs and other Pharmaceutical Agents, Volume 76 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans) by The International Agency for Research on Cancer