By Joao Carlos Espada
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Additional info for Social Citizenship Rights: A Critique of F. A. Hayek and Raymond Plant
Besides that, while a made order results from the action of some external agent, who puts the elements of a set in their places or directs their movements, the place of each element in a grown order is not only unpredictable but also undetermined. The general character of that order is its sole predictable feature, not the particular position of its elements. To illustrate what he understands by a grown order or Cosmos, Hayek recalls that we can never produce a crystal or a complex organic compound by placing the individual atoms in such a position that they will form the lattice of a crystal or the system based on benzol rings which make up an organic compound.
The only rule which could produce certainty about final particular results is the rule which attributes the power and the duty of bringing these about to a central authority. This rule is however incompatible with the liberal principle according to which each individual must be free to use the best of his knowledge for his own purposes. This principle, in its turn, allows the efficient use, for the benefit of all, of information widely dispersed among millions of men. Moreover, it should be noted that none of these difficulties would be removed if, instead of aiming at 'social justice', individuals had only adopted the minimalist aim of avoiding 'social injustice'.
13 and again: the only procedure yet discovered in which information widely dispersed among millions of men can be effectively utilised for the benefit of all- and used by assuring to all an individual liberty desirable for itself on ethical grounds. 14 and quite conclusively: we use an impersonal process to determine the allocation of benefits precisely because through its operation we can bring about a structure of relative prices and remunerations that will determine a size and composition of the total output which assures that the real equivalent of each individual's share that accident or skill assigns to him will be as large as we know how to make it' 15 It is interesting to observe that, while using these arguments to justify the moral desirability of the market order, Hayek is indeed discussing the results of that order in terms of the subject-matter of social justice - although, of course, his view on this subject-matter is that no overall pattern of distribution or social justice should be imposed on the market results.
Social Citizenship Rights: A Critique of F. A. Hayek and Raymond Plant by Joao Carlos Espada