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Extra resources for Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA NS-G-1.2)
62. These dose estimates should be compared with the radiological criteria developed for the plant. This should include dose limits which are legal requirements or requirements of the regulator and should take account of the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). 63. The results of these dose estimates should be assessed to identify any weakness in the design or system of operation of the plant; improvements should be made where reasonably achievable.
Other possible ageing effects indicated by past operating experience are listed below. The design of the plant should eliminate the problems during the design stage or include means for timely detection of their inception and for implementing the appropriate corrective actions: — Channel hydriding and embrittlement in pressure channel reactors, which may lead to channel replacement; 26 — Corrosion of vessel internals, vibration and failure, the possibility of which should be detectable by suitable surveillance means; — Cracking of core nozzles and reactor internals; — Thermal and pressure transients in nozzles and piping; — Thermal mixing in pipe joint areas; — Thermal stratification in piping and other piping erosion in components, which should be detectable by periodic inspections, facilitated by suitable design provisions; — Ageing of organic cable insulation or ventilation sealing materials, which should be taken into account in the design to permit detection and possible replacement.
The design of the plant should be tolerant of human error. To the extent practicable, any inappropriate human actions should be rendered ineffective. For this purpose, the priority between operator action and safety system actuation should be carefully chosen. On the one hand, the operator should not be allowed to override reactor protection system actuation as long as the initiation criteria for actuation apply. On the other hand, there are situations where operator interventions into the protection system are necessary.
Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA NS-G-1.2)