Download PDF by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life: Review of the Department of Energy's Genomics, GTL program

By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on Review of the Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Program

ISBN-10: 030965811X

ISBN-13: 9780309658119

The U.S. division of power (DOE) promotes clinical and technological innovation to boost the nationwide, monetary, and effort defense of the U.S.. spotting the opportunity of microorganisms to supply new power possible choices and remediate environmental illness, DOE initiated the Genomes to lifestyles software, now referred to as Genomics: GTL, in 2000. this system goals to increase a predictive knowing of microbial platforms that may be used to engineer structures for bioenergy construction and environmental remediation, and to appreciate carbon biking and sequestration. This file offers an evaluate of this system and its infrastructure plan. total, the document reveals that GTL’s learn has ended in and provides to bring many extra medical developments that give a contribution to the success of DOE’s objectives. although, the DOE’s present plan for development 4 self reliant amenities for protein creation, molecular imaging, proteome research, and platforms biology sequentially will not be the main least expensive, effective, and scientifically optimum strategy to offer this infrastructure. instead, the record indicates developing as much as 4 institute-like amenities, each one of which integrates the features of all 4 of the initially deliberate facility kinds and makes a speciality of one or of DOE’s undertaking pursuits. the choice infrastructure plan can have an extremely excessive ratio of medical profit to price as the desire for expertise might be without delay tied to the biology objectives of the program.

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For example, one goal of the Genomics: GTL program is to discover functions of genes that could contribute to cheaper biofuels. The development of more-efficient and cost-effective enzymes is a critical step in making the abundant and diverse array of plant-derived polysaccharides available for the production of energy and industrial chemicals. A study commissioned by the National Research Council (NRC, 2000) and the roadmap from the Biomass Technical Advisory Committee (2002) established by the Biomass R & D Act of 2003 have each identified enzyme engineering as having one of the top three priorities in biological research to support the development of microbial or plant-based biofuels and industrial chemicals.

Metagenomic sequencing is a means of surveying DNA from complex consortia. , 2005). Nevertheless, current strategies for shotgun sequencing limit analysis to the most abundant genomes and typically yield only fragmentary assemblies. Recognition of that has sparked renewed interest in developing methods for enriching and culturing recalcitrant and rare species. , 2004). The combination of new culture-independent technologies—such as single-cell sequencing, for example, the work of DOE-funded investigator George Church (DOE, 2005c)—with efforts to enrich and set priorities among specific genomes for analysis may have potential to expand our view of ecosystem biocomplexity.

Earth’s marine environments and in particular their microbial inhabitants constitute a potential tool to change the balance of the CO2 equation. A key to realiz- continued 22 REVIEW OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY’S GENOMICS: GTL PROGRAM BOX 1-3 Continued ing that potential is an increased understanding of the planet’s biological carbon cycle, including microbial photosynthesis—a process that uses light energy to convert atmospheric CO2 into the organic molecules that make up life on Earth. Manipulating photosynthetic systems on a grand scale may offer a means to decrease atmospheric CO2.

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Review of the Department of Energy's Genomics, GTL program by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on Review of the Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Program

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