By Andrew Wolpert
In 404 b.c. the Peloponnesian warfare eventually got here to an finish, while the Athenians, starved into submission, have been pressured to simply accept Sparta's phrases of hand over. almost immediately afterwards a bunch of thirty conspirators, with Spartan backing ("the Thirty"), overthrew the democracy and verified a slim oligarchy. even though the oligarchs have been in energy for under 13 months, they killed greater than five percentage of the citizenry and terrorized the remainder by way of confiscating the valuables of a few and banishing many others. regardless of this brutality, individuals of the democratic resistance stream that regained keep an eye on of Athens got here to phrases with the oligarchs and agreed to an amnesty that safe collaborators from prosecution for all however the such a lot critical crimes. The battle and next reconciliation of Athenian society has been a wealthy box for historians of old Greece. From a rhetorical and ideological point of view, this era is exclusive as a result of the amazing lengths to which the Athenians went to keep up peace. In Remembering Defeat, Andrew Wolpert claims that the peace was once "negotiated and built in civic discourse" and never imposed upon the population. instead of explaining why the reconciliation was once profitable, as a fashion of laying off mild on alterations in Athenian ideology Wolpert makes use of public speeches of the early fourth century to think about how the Athenians faced the troubling thoughts of defeat and civil struggle, and the way they defined to themselves an contract that allowed the conspirators and their collaborators to head unpunished. Encompassing rhetorical research, trauma stories, and up to date scholarship on id, reminiscence, and legislation, Wolpert's examine sheds new gentle on a pivotal interval in Athens' historical past.
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Additional resources for Remembering Defeat: Civil War and Civic Memory in Ancient Athens
The Boeotians and Corinthians refused to join in Pausanias’s cam- ≤∫ F THE HISTORICAL SETTING paign (Xen. Hell. 30), and further intervention threatened to antagonize still other allies. By reconciling the warring factions, Pausanias not only (temporarily) checked dissension within the Peloponnesian League but also insured that Athens would remain too divided to threaten Spartan hegemony. Even though Pausanias had signaled to the factions his willingness to accommodate the democrats, envoys from the Ten came to Sparta demanding that the democrats surrender their strongholds.
Yet none of the sources indicates that Theramenes was responsible. Furthermore, the ﬁnal terms were not better than those that the Spartans o√ered even before Theramenes’ embassy. Despite the ingenuity of modern accounts that present his mission as a diplomatic victory, the simplest explanation is that he failed to extract any additional concessions. Serving as a messenger of Spartan demands rather than the triumphant broker of peace, he was merely part of the delay that caused the deaths of more Athenians before the city ﬁnally capitulated.
2), thereby strengthening their position in the restored democracy. Archinus made the restored democracy more conservative than it might otherwise have been and potentially more internally divisive, but he also made Athens more capable of responding to external threats because of the additional population. So, in 401/0, when the democrats heard that ≥≤ F THE HISTORICAL SETTING the oligarchs were hiring mercenaries, they marched out against Eleusis and destroyed the stronghold. ≥ Thereafter, the only clauses that still mattered concerned reconciliation.
Remembering Defeat: Civil War and Civic Memory in Ancient Athens by Andrew Wolpert