By Eaton E. Lattman;Patrick J. Loll
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Additional info for Protein Crystallography: A Concise Guide
In fact, the sum of waves from all the holes has a negligible value everywhere except in the special directions for which the path length di√erence is nl. Being a whole number of wavelengths out of phase is the same as being in phase. 5. 4, shown in more detail. The two holes are separated by the crystal period a. Two di√racted rays are shown emerging from the adjacent holes, traveling in the direction speciﬁed by the angle u. The di√erence in the path lengths traveled by these two waves is given by d = a sinu.
We discuss how protein crystallographers typically attack the phase problem in the next chapter. 4. Series of two-dimensional cosine density ﬂuctuations and their di√raction patterns. For each panel, the cosine ﬂuctuation is shown on the left, with its di√raction pattern on the right. Panel (c) represents the sum of panels (a) and (b); (f ) = (a) + (b) + (d); (g) = (a) + (b) + (e). In each panel, the white box represents one unit cell in the two-dimensional crystal. This ﬁgure is described in more detail in the text.
In fact, the relative phase of the two summed waves critically a√ects the appearance of the third wave. In the upper panel, the two waves to be added are perfectly in phase, and the resultant wave has an amplitude twice that of the two input waves, and the same phase. In the lower panel, the two added waves are 180\ out of phase and cancel one another so that the resultant wave has zero amplitude. In the middle panel, the two added waves are out of phase by an angle somewhat less than 180\, and the resultant wave has an intermediate amplitude and phase.
Protein Crystallography: A Concise Guide by Eaton E. Lattman;Patrick J. Loll