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By Joris G. Winderickx (Editor), Peter M. Taylor (Editor)

ISBN-10: 3540209174

ISBN-13: 9783540209171

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Daniel and J. Zempleni, eds), CABI Publishing, Wallington, UK, pp 105-119 Kilberg MS, Stevens BR, Novak D (1993) Recent advances in mammalian amino acid transport. Ann Rev Nutr 3:137-165 Laine RO, Laipis PJ, Shay NF, Kilberg MS (1991) Identification of an amino acidregulated mRNA from rat liver as the mammalian equivalent of bacterial ribosomal protein L22. J Biol Chem 66:16969-16972 Laine RO, Shay NF, Kilberg MS (1994) Nuclear retention of the induced mRNA following amino acid-dependent transcriptional regulation of mammalian ribosomal proteins L17 and S25.

In lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the availability of a specific nutrient may regulate its own acquisition, synthesis, and utilisation as well as modulate general cell metabolism (Fafournoux et al. 2000; Forsberg and Ljungdahl 2001). In contrast, endocrine and neuronal systems of higher eukaryotes are generally considered to have the dominant role in regulating the responses of tissues to altered nutrient availability, at least in vivo (Fafournoux et al. 2000; Van Sluijters et al. 2000; Proud 2002).

The charging of tRNA molecules is catalysed by specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes, which have recognition sites for both an individual amino acid and its cognate tRNAs (Francklyn et al. 2002). Initiation involves the binding of both the mRNA and a charged methionyltRNA (Met-tRNAMet) molecule to a ribosome (a catalytic complex of 40S and 60S subunits composed of proteins and distinct ribosomal RNAs) to form an 80S initiation complex. This process requires a number of initiation factors, which are involved in binding to the 5’ mRNA cap, unwinding of secondary structure in the mRNA and “scanning” it for the initiation codon (AUG), which is recognised by 32 Christopher G.

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Nutrient-Induced Responses in Eukaryotic Cells (Topics in Current Genetics) by Joris G. Winderickx (Editor), Peter M. Taylor (Editor)

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