By Judith K. Blackshaw, David John Allan
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Additional info for Notes on Some Topics in Applied Animal Behaviour
The development of social Organisation in the domestic chick. Anim. Behav. 6:92–111. M. L. (1953) Visual patterns in the recognition of individuals among chickens. Condor 55, 287–ˆ298. Hansen, I. O. (1994) Effect of rearing density on pecking behaviour and plumage condition of laying hens in two types of aviary, Applied Animal Behavioural Science 40, 263–272. O. 1976. Preference decisions of domestic hens for wire or litter floors. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 2:155–165. O. J. 1973. The preference of domestic hens for different types of battery cage floor.
This effect is not related to taste preferences (Hughes, 1993). They also sometimes make unwise choices and poison themselves. Food aversions can occur when foods are deficient in nutrients or when they contain an excess of rapidly digestible nutrients. Excess byproducts of fermentation processes from energy and nitrogen can condition food aversions (Provenza, 1997). , condensed tannins in blackbrush cause transient decreases in ingestion of current-season twigs by goats (Provenza, 1997). Animals, especially non-scavengers, are often reluctant to try unfamiliar foods or familiar foods with unfamiliar or new flavours.
On hot days cattle and sheep do most of their grazing in the early morning and evening and more than usual at night. As previously discussed, sheep without shade stand together with heads under the flanks of another sheep. On hot days, cattle without shade may show heat stress and walk excessively to optimise evaporative cooling. Cattle may then be too exhausted to graze in the cooler afternoon temperatures when cattle with shade begin to graze. When humidity is high during the day, more grazing occurs at night.
Notes on Some Topics in Applied Animal Behaviour by Judith K. Blackshaw, David John Allan