By Leonard J. Rosenthal, Hans Wilhelm Doerr
Nearly 15 according to cent of human melanoma prevalence might be attributed to virus an infection, i.e. viruses symbolize the second one most vital threat issue (after tobacco intake) for melanoma improvement in people. at the present time, 5 virus forms are identified to be eager about inflicting human melanoma: papillomaviruses, retroviruses, herpesviruses, hepadnaviruses, and flaviviruses. This quantity of "Monographs in Virology" offers a accomplished evaluation of a few DNA tumor viruses. major specialists within the box of tumor virology talk about up to date details, targeting the reworking genes of DNA tumor viruses, the mechanisms of transformation and the in vitro technique used for his or her id and characterization. even if DNA tumor viruses are a various team, in vitro reviews have published a number of universal mechanisms of viral transformation. the person chapters of the e-book describe the most recent examine at the identity of viral oncogenes and their goals.
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Extra resources for Mechanisms of DNA tumor virus transformation
In a later study, Negrini et al.  also found episomal BKV DNA in Kaposi’s sarcoma, Ewing and osteogenic sarcoma, glioma, meningioma and neuroblastoma. Again, BKV could be rescued from several of these tumors (ependymoma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma and glioma) and had a regulatory region identical to BKV-IR. De Mattei et al. , using PCR amplification, were able to detect BKV genome in 85% of all primary brain tumors (100% of all astrocytomas, papillomas and spongioblastomas), 100% of all normal brain tissue, 78% of osteosarcomas, 38% of Ewing sarcomas and 71% of all normal peripheral lymphocytes.
Virus Genes 1989;2:157–165. Rubinstein R, Schoonakker BC, Harley EH: Recurring theme of changes in the transcriptional control region of BK virus during adaptation to cell culture. J Virol 1991;65:1600–1604. Caputo A, Corallini A, Grossi MP, et al: Episomal DNA of a BK virus variant in a human insulinoma. J Med Virol 1983;12:37– 49. Watanabe S, Yoshiike K: Inefficient expression in rat cells of transforming gene of BK virus with 68-bp tandem repeats in the viral promoter-enhancer. Virology 1989;169:204–212.
Monini et al. [100, 101] also described the presence of BKV genome in a variety of urogenital tumors, including tumors of the bladder, prostate, kidney and ureter. Given that BKV persistently infects the urogenital tract, it was not surprising that BKV would be implicated in the pathogenesis of urogenital malignancies. Interestingly, sequence analysis of nine samples found the identical sequence of the regulatory region in all the samples. The regulatory region was notable for a novel combination of duplications and deletions which had previously not been reported.
Mechanisms of DNA tumor virus transformation by Leonard J. Rosenthal, Hans Wilhelm Doerr