By Josiah Ober
This ebook asks a huge query usually missed through historic historians and political scientists alike: Why did Athenian democracy paintings in addition and for so long as it did? Josiah Ober seeks the reply by means of studying the sociology of Athenian politics and the character of communique among elite and nonelite voters. After a initial survey of the advance of the Athenian "constitution," he specializes in the position of political and criminal rhetoric. As jurymen and Assemblymen, the citizen lots of Athens retained very important powers, and elite Athenian politicians and litigants had to handle those huge our bodies of standard electorate in phrases comprehensible and appropriate to the viewers. This booklet probes the social ideas at the back of the rhetorical strategies hired through elite speakers.A shut interpreting of the speeches exposes either egalitarian and elitist parts in Athenian well known ideology. Ober demonstrates that the vocabulary of public speech constituted a democratic discourse that allowed the Athenians to unravel contradictions among the right of political equality and the truth of social inequality. His radical reevaluation of management and political energy in classical Athens restores key parts of the social and ideological context of the 1st western democracy.
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Extra info for Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens: Rhetoric, Ideology, and the Power of the People
Finley's face-to-face model has been picked up by, inter alios, Holmes, "Aristippus," 121. 75 Finley (PAW, 28 n. 9) cites chapter 10 of Laslett, Philosophy, Politics and Society (Oxford, 1956); cf. also Laslett, The World We Have Lost: England Before the Industrial Age2 (New York, 1973), 55-83. Demes: Hopper, Basis; Daviero-Rocchi, "Transformations," 36-40, 44-45; Whitehead, "Competitive Outlay," Demes 68-69, 85, 226233, 248; Osborne, Demos, 64-92. Roussel, Tribu et cité, 157, suggests a similar integrative role may have been played by the phratries.
91; Washburn, Political Sociology, esp. 50-103. 1 32 See Connor, NP, 94 n. 11, for a rare example of an ancient historian citing Michels; notably, the citation is approving (although it does not concern the Iron Law of Oligarchy per se). 33 Finley, DAM, esp. 7—16, PAW, esp. 139—40, cf. Ancient History, 97. For apathy as good for democracy: Lipset, "Political Sociology," 95, with literature cited in n. 20. , Political Elites; Field and Higley, Elitism. PROBLEMS AND METHOD 17 late fifth century—the "demagogues" (demagogoi, literally "leaders of the people") who addressed the citizenry in the Assembly and law courts—identifying them as an essential structural element in the direct democracy's decision-making process.
Operation and Finance," CM 35 (1984): 71-92. But cf. E. Erxleben, "Das Verhältnis des Handels zum Produktionsaufkommen in Attica im 5. und 4. Jh. ," Klio 57 (1975): 365-98; and the various essays collected in Trade in the Ancient Economy, esp. " A compromise (citizen traders were few, but this was a function more of the complexity of the trade than of Athenian distaste for trade) was suggested by H. ' Citizens and Foreigners in the Athenian Grain Trade," SO 61 (1986): 43-61. Cf. 2. 70 Most Athenians no doubt lived at a level somewhere between affluence and abject poverty, but their class interest, insofar as they had one, was that of persons who had to work for a living and who viewed themselves in relation to, and sometimes in opposition to, the leisured rich.
Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens: Rhetoric, Ideology, and the Power of the People by Josiah Ober