By Peter Clarke
This bold and wide-ranging booklet is ready the connection among liberalism and socialism in Britain within the overdue 19th and 20th centuries. It focuses principally on a bunch of intellectuals whose names are generic yet whose paintings has been overlooked or misunderstood. Graham Wallas is the forgotten guy of early Fabianism. L. T. Hobhouse has misleadingly been typecast because the final significant exponent of a demise liberal culture. J. A. Hobson's recognition has been obscured by way of repeated claims that he was once a precursor both of the Leninist thought of imperialism or of the Keynesian revolution in economics. The old paintings of J. L. and Barbara Hammond has suffered related revenges from the whirligig of time. There are different liberals or socialists - particularly Gilbert Murray, Bernard Shaw, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, R. H. Tawney and J. M. Keynes - who obtain massive realization. within the later chapters the commercial methods of Hobson and Keynes are disentangled and installed their right ancient surroundings.
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Extra resources for Liberals and Social Democrats
Gladstone summarised Mrs Ward's purpose as that of 'discarding the supposed lumber of the Christian theology, while retaining and applying, in their undiminished breadth of scope, the whole personal, social, and spiritual morality which has now, as a matter of fact, entered into the patrimony of Christendom' (NC, xxiii, 777). But this he considered 'a vague and arbitrary severance of Christian morals from the roots which have produced them', viz. Christian dogma (p. 781). As regards the historical record, he swept aside the doubts of modern scholarship and inferred the greatness of the truth from the fact that it had prevailed.
Ricardo had established a theory of rent for land of differential fertility; the discussions in the Hampstead Historic Society now pointed to the conclusion that this could be extended to all other economic advantages. 4 The tactical corollary was clear. Wallas elucidated it in a paper read at Kelmscott House in the spring of 1886. Revolutionary socialists might ' rejoice at everything which under the present system tends to increase the suffering and helplessness of the working-classes and therefore, they think, to bring the day of Retribution nearer'.
Even so, it is difficult to see how Hobhouse could have become properly acquainted with Green's thought until the late 1880s. Hobhouse had however, read works by Mill and Spencer while at school. 17 In academic circles, of course, it was enough to deny an interest in dogs; but Hobhouse was interested in dogs. He seized on Spencer with a naive enthusiasm and set himself, after he graduated, to master the methods of natural science. For six months he worked full time at the Oxford physiological laboratory under Professor J.
Liberals and Social Democrats by Peter Clarke