By Joyce Appleby
Like dye forged into water, liberal assumptions colour every little thing American, from principles approximately human nature to fears approximately immense executive. no longer the feared "L" note of the 1988 presidential crusade, liberalism in its old context emerged from the trendy religion in loose inquiry, normal rights, monetary liberty, and democratic govt. Expressed within the nation-building acts of revolution and constitution-writing, liberalism either established and constrained american citizens' feel of truth for 2 centuries.
The nation's students have been not able to wreck clear of liberalism's pervasive carry at the American brain until eventually the final generation--when they recovered the misplaced international of classical republicanism. Ornate, aristocratic, prescriptive, and anxious with the typical strong, this manner of republicanism held sway one of the founding fathers earlier than the triumph of liberal inspiration, with its basic, egalitarian, rational, and individualistic emphasis. the 2 recommendations, as Joyce Appleby indicates, posed offerings for eighteenth-century thinkers a lot as they've got divided twentieth-century students.
coming into one of many liveliest debates within the scholarly international approximately our ideological roots, Appleby follows the labyrinthine controversies that those views have generated of their day and in ours. In doing so, she addresses the tensions that stay to be resolved within the democratic societies of the past due 20th century--the advanced kin among person and group, own liberty and the typical strong, aspiration and sensible knowledge.
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12 n n n n n Within the ATF, the massive size of Operation Fast and Furious made it something of a conversation piece. Special Agent Peter Forcelli was working in the home invasions and violent crime division of the ATF when he heard other agents boast of an operation involving 1,200 firearms. 13 But then things became more unusual. “They were talking about surveillance. ” Forcelli was present at a meeting where Hope MacAllister gave a PowerPoint presentation with photographs of straw purchasers buying guns in Phoenix-area gun stores.
S. S. S. is based on an incomplete survey of confiscated weapons. S. 16 A large fraction of these guns eventually end up “lost” and in the hands of cartels. 19 Regardless of the actual facts, it was clear the Obama administration was united in its enmity toward American gun shop owners. Close them down, as NRA President David Keene says, and you close down the Second Amendment. After all, he maintained, what good is the right to own firearms if there is no place to purchase them? n n n n n With a revamped Project Gunrunner that boasted a presidential imprimatur, additional authority, and expanded resources, including Origins of a Scandal 33 a new database for gun tracing, the ATF sought to make inroads against the Mexican cartels besieging the border.
The bill was meant to correct a quirk in Arizona law, which allowed a citizen to fire at a criminal in justifiable self-defense only as long as the citizen drew and fired right away; merely drawing a gun and pointing it at a criminal could lead to prosecution. But this commonsense fix was opposed by the anti-gun lobby. 24 Napolitano was not considered controversial, and her confirmation as Secretary of Homeland Security proceeded smoothly. Holder’s nomination was a different story, given his reputation as a fiercely partisan member of the Bill Clinton-era Justice Department.
Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination by Joyce Appleby