By Dhavendra Kumar, Charis Eng
The 1st version of Genomics and scientific Medicine supplied an outline of genomics-based advances in ailment susceptibility, prognosis, and prediction of therapy results in a number of components of drugs. on the grounds that its ebook, the technological know-how of genomics has made large development, and intriguing new advancements in biotechnology and bioinformatics have created probabilities that have been impossible just a couple of years in the past. This thoroughly revised moment version of Genomic Medicine displays the quickly altering face of utilized and translational genomics within the scientific and future health context and gives a entire assurance of rules of genetics and genomics suitable to the perform of medication.
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Additional resources for Genomic Medicine: Principles and Practice
The 3′ exon of a gene is often considerably larger than the internal exons. 1 that is exported to the cytoplasm. A large multimolecular machine, the spliceosome, cuts out the introns and splices together the exons. A special nucleotide structure, the cap, is added to the 5′ end of the RNA, and a string of a few hundred A nucleotides (the polyA tail) is attached to the 3′ end. THE EXTENDED GENE Human genes are much larger than their coding sequences. If we define a gene as a functional unit of DNA, extra elements include: • 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions—the AUG initiation codon of an mRNA is located some distance • Introns—introns are usually considerably larger than the exons they separate.
Proteins are the main packaging agents of chromatin, with some involvement of small RNA molecules. The basic level of packaging is into a string of nucleosomes. One hundred and forty-seven base pairs of naked DNA wrap around an octamer of histone proteins (two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) to form a nucleosome. Successive nucleosomes are separated by 10–80 base pairs of spacer DNA. Nucleosomes are relatively stable structures that nevertheless must permit polymerases and other progressive enzymes to move along a DNA strand.
Downstream of the 5′-end (the genome-wide average is 300 nt). The 5′ untranslated region binds the ribosomes, which slide along until they encounter an AUG codon embedded in a suitable context (a Kozak sequence, consensus GCCRCCAUGG, where R means a purine [A or G] and the initiator codon is underlined). At the 3′ end, the stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA) is usually several hundred bases or even kilobases upstream of the physical end of the mRNA. 3′ untranslated sequences contain important elements that regulate the activity and turnover of mRNAs.
Genomic Medicine: Principles and Practice by Dhavendra Kumar, Charis Eng