Download e-book for iPad: Genetics. From Genes to Genomes by Hartwell L. et al.

By Hartwell L. et al.

ISBN-10: 007352526X

ISBN-13: 9780073525266

Учебник по генетике.

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Extra resources for Genetics. From Genes to Genomes

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He designated dominant alleles with a capital A, B, or C and recessive ones with a lowercase a, b, or c. Modern geneticists have adopted this convention for naming genes in peas and many other organisms, but they often choose a symbol with some reference to the trait in question—a Y for yellow or an R for round. Throughout this book, we present gene symbols in italics. In Fig. 11, we denote the dominant yellow allele by a capital Y and the recessive green allele by a lower case y. The pure-breeding plants of the parental generation are either YY (yellow peas) or yy (green peas).

Such experiments involving hybrids for a single trait are often called monohybrid crosses. He then harvested and counted the peas of the resulting second filial (F2) generation, progeny of the F1 generation. Among the progeny of one series of F1 self-fertilizations, there were 6022 yellow and 2001 green F2 peas, an almost perfect ratio of 3 yellow : 1 green. F1 plants derived from the reciprocal of the original cross produced a similar ratio of yellow to green F2 progeny. Reappearance of the recessive trait The presence of green peas in the F2 generation was irrefutable evidence that blending had not occurred.

The photograph at right shows two pea pods, each of which contains wrinkled (arrows) and round peas; the ratio of round to wrinkled in these two well-chosen pods is 9:3 (or 3:1). Gene Biochemical Change of Unbranched Starch Molecules Dominant allele R Pea Shape Active enzyme Conversion Unbranched starch Branched starch Round pea Inactive enzyme Recessive allele r Unbranched starch No conversion X case, yellow seeds—dominant (see Fig. 8) and the “antagonistic” green-pea trait that remained hidden in the F1 hybrids but reappeared in the F2 generation recessive.

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Genetics. From Genes to Genomes by Hartwell L. et al.

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