By Alan J. Sangster
Electromagnetic levitation is often linked to shipping functions, mostly "MagLev" trains. but the know-how has many capability purposes throughout engineering, really the place there's a requirement to enhance potency of electric items and units, propelled through the will to minimise frictional and bearing losses and ohmic losses in conductors, the main motives of computing device inefficiency. basics of Electromagnetic Levitation: Engineering Sustainability via potency is an introductory textual content encompassing the allowing electric applied sciences linked to magnetic levitation, electrostatic suspension, diamagnetic levitation and superconduction, excessive frequency magnetic levitation, excessive frequency electrical suspension, and levitation utilizing microwave strain. It goals to make aspiring and present electric engineers conscious of the potency implications of frictionless machines and therefore of ways vital this can be in a submit fossil-fuel global during which the power on hand from renewable assets is precisely constrained.
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Additional info for Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Levitation: Engineering Sustainability Through Efficiency
2 Evolution of electromagnetic levitation The historical record places the appearance of recognisable magnetic levitation to the early nineteenth century, when J. Henry noted that a current carrying wire wound on a ferrite magnet core could generate lift against the force of gravity. Curiously though, Benjamin Franklin of lightning conductor fame, apparently predicted, much earlier, that ‘We may perhaps learn to deprive large masses of their gravity and give them absolute levity for the sake of ease of transport’.
16) to a steady (DC) current (I ) on a long straight wire, we can confidently say that the magnetic field that the law predicts must form closed circular loops centred on the wire – assuming the wire has a cylindrical cross-section. s. system, the dimension of magnetic field strength H is A/m. 30) where the constant μ0 is termed the absolute permeability of free space and has the magnitude 4π × 10−7 Henries/m (Henry = Tm2 /A). As with electrostatics we can say that more generally, B = μr μ0 H, where μr is termed the relative permeability of the material concerned.
The solution to estimating the magnetic force in computations of this type is to examine stored energy. In the usually small gap, at least in levitation applications, between a pair of magnets, the magnetic flux density in the gap can, with little error, be assumed to be uniformly distributed in the gap (Bz ). 14) where g is the gap length. But this energy must be equal to the work that would have to be performed to force the poles together against the repulsive force Fz . 15) Clearly, pressure, in a magnetic structure relevant to levitation systems, is largely dependent on the strength of the primary magnetic flux penetrating the structure.
Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Levitation: Engineering Sustainability Through Efficiency by Alan J. Sangster