By Wolfgang Minker, Laila Dybkjær, Holmer Hemsen
In its 9 chapters, this booklet presents an summary of the state of the art and top perform in numerous sub-fields of review of textual content and speech platforms and parts. The evaluate points lined comprise speech and speaker attractiveness, speech synthesis, lively conversing brokers, part-of-speech tagging, parsing, and traditional language software program like laptop translation, details retrieval, query answering, spoken discussion platforms, facts assets, and annotation schemes. With its vast assurance and unique contributions this ebook is exclusive within the box of assessment of speech and language technology.
This booklet is of specific relevance to complex undergraduate scholars, PhD scholars, educational and commercial researchers, and practitioners.
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Additional resources for Evaluation of Text and Speech Systems (Text, Speech and Language Technology, Volume 37)
Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU), Oregon, USA. Dix, A. , Finlay, J. , Abowd, G. , and Beale, R. (1998). Human-Computer Interaction. Prentice Hall, London, UK, 2nd edition. Doddington, G. (1974). Speaker Verification. Technical Report RADC 74–179, Rome Air Development Center. , Bernsen, N. , and Minker, W. (2005). Overview of Evaluation and Usability. , editors, Speech and Speaker Recognition Evaluation 25 Spoken Multimodal Human-Computer Dialogue in Mobile Environments, pages 221–246.
Since there are (VR − VL ) kinds of OOV words to be recognized that are not included in the language model vocabulary, the OOV probability is divided by (VR − VL ). The perplexity changes according to the vocabulary size. In general, the perplexity decreases by decreasing the vocabulary size VL , since the probability allocated to each word becomes larger. However, if the test vocabulary size VR is fixed and the language model vocabulary size VL is decreased, the linguistic constraint becomes lower, since the number of OOV in the test set increases.
Insertions and deletions can also be included in the matrix by adding a null word i = 0 (non-vocabulary word). Then, the row C0j contains insertions, 10 EVALUATION OF TEXT AND SPEECH SYSTEMS the column Ci0 the deletions, and C00 = 0. , E = 1 − Σi Cii = Σi̸=j Cij . The elements Cij for i ̸= j are called the offdiagonal elements. Continuous word scoring. In continuous speech recognition, the output words are generally not time-synchronous with the input utterance. Therefore, the output stream has to be aligned with the reference transcriptions.
Evaluation of Text and Speech Systems (Text, Speech and Language Technology, Volume 37) by Wolfgang Minker, Laila Dybkjær, Holmer Hemsen