Eloge de la différence: La génétique et les hommes by Albert Jacquard PDF

By Albert Jacquard

ISBN-10: 2020049384

ISBN-13: 9782020049382

Les progrès de los angeles génétique ont généré autant de fantasmes démiurgiques que d'espoirs bien fondés. L'eugénisme est au nombre de ces utopies mortifères qu'entretient à son insu l. a. technological know-how. Pourtant, l'imprévisible diversité des individus qui los angeles composent constitue los angeles caractéristique essentielle de l'espèce humaine, et le devenir de chaque être est par nature incertain. Cette contingence irréductible tient aux rapports qu'entretiennent en l'homme l'inné et l'acquis. L'un ne peut se définir sans l'autre : l'inné est l. a. faculté d'acquérir ; l'acquis est le développement indéterminé de cette faculté. Aussi, l. a. volonté d'expliquer l'histoire d'un individu par le déterminisme génétique est-elle vouée à l'échec.

Le chapitre où l'auteur démontre le caractère idéologique et non scientifique des assessments destinés à révéler les déterminations génétiques de l'intelligence humaine est une vraie leçon de clairvoyance. l. a. lecture de ce passage - "Intelligence et génétique" - justifie à elle seule qu'on se procure cet ouvrage éclairé du plus philosophe des généticiens contemporains. --Paul Klein

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Extra info for Eloge de la différence: La génétique et les hommes

Sample text

The 3′ exon of a gene is often considerably larger than the internal exons. 1 that is exported to the cytoplasm. A large multimolecular machine, the spliceosome, cuts out the introns and splices together the exons. A special nucleotide structure, the cap, is added to the 5′ end of the RNA, and a string of a few hundred A nucleotides (the polyA tail) is attached to the 3′ end. THE EXTENDED GENE Human genes are much larger than their coding sequences. If we define a gene as a functional unit of DNA, extra elements include: • 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions—the AUG initiation codon of an mRNA is located some distance • Introns—introns are usually considerably larger than the exons they separate.

Proteins are the main packaging agents of chromatin, with some involvement of small RNA molecules. The basic level of packaging is into a string of nucleosomes. One hundred and forty-seven base pairs of naked DNA wrap around an octamer of histone proteins (two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) to form a nucleosome. Successive nucleosomes are separated by 10–80 base pairs of spacer DNA. Nucleosomes are relatively stable structures that nevertheless must permit polymerases and other progressive enzymes to move along a DNA strand.

Downstream of the 5′-end (the genome-wide average is 300 nt). The 5′ untranslated region binds the ribosomes, which slide along until they encounter an AUG codon embedded in a suitable context (a Kozak sequence, consensus GCCRCCAUGG, where R means a purine [A or G] and the initiator codon is underlined). At the 3′ end, the stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA) is usually several hundred bases or even kilobases upstream of the physical end of the mRNA. 3′ untranslated sequences contain important elements that regulate the activity and turnover of mRNAs.

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Eloge de la différence: La génétique et les hommes by Albert Jacquard

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