By J. Bastos, N. Sadowski
In actual fact examines key elements of the Finite aspect strategy (FEM) for electromagnetic research of low-frequency electric units. bargains quite a lot of examples, together with torque, vibration, and iron loss calculation; coupling of the FEM with mechanical equations, circuits, converters, and thermal results; fabric modeling; and confirmed tools for hysteresis implementation into FEM codes.
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Extra resources for Electromagnetic Modeling by Finite Element Methods
Electromagnetics (EM) can be described by the equations of Maxwell and the constitutive relations. The theory of EM took a long time to be established, and it can be understood by the fact that the EM quantities are "abstract" or, in other words, can not be "seen" or "touched" (contrarily to most others, such as mechanical and thermal quantities). Actually, the majority of the EM phenomena were established by other scientists before Maxwell, such as Ampere (1775 -1836), Gauss (1777-1855), Faraday (1791-1867), Lenz (1804-1865) among others.
Definition of circulation of a vector A along contour L. 13a. Maximum circulation. 13b. Zero circulation. Assuming that dl is equal to dM in Eq. 5) we get dU =gradU • d\ Copyright © 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. =gradU, the circulation along the contour depends only on the initial and final points of the contour (P and Q), not on the contour itself. If the contour L is closed, or, if Q and P coincide, the circulation of A is zero. It remains to be verified if all vectors can be identified by a gradient.
As in the example above, a high flux density is associated with a high permeability |J, . Using the literal meaning of the terms "induction" and "permeability," we can say that a large flux is "induced" in a medium and that the medium is highly "permeable" to flux. The permeability of air is |I0 =471 -10" Henry/meter. 4. The Electric Flux Density D and Electric Permittivity 8 There is a direct parallel between the pairs D, 8 and B, JJ, , shown above. D is also called "electric induction" and it plays an important role in Gauss' theorem, as will be presented soon.
Electromagnetic Modeling by Finite Element Methods by J. Bastos, N. Sadowski