By Leda Gerber
The e-book discusses a multi-objective optimization method in LCA that permits the versatile development of complete Pareto fronts to aid comprehend the weightings and relative significance of its parts. The technique is utilized to the pertinent issues of thermochemical wooden conversion, deep geothermal strength, and neighborhood power planning.
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Extra info for Designing Renewable Energy Systems: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach
Detailed design data are taken from a heat exchanger manufactured for an industrial chemical process at 10 different sizes, the size being represented by the exchange area in m2 . It is composed by two materials, stainless steel and unalloyed steel, which quantities are calculated for each exchange area using the design data. Then the resulting impact is calculated using the LCIA data for the two materials from the LCI database, using the single score of the Ecoindicator99-(h,a) (Goedkoop © 2014 by EPFL Press 22 The LCA approach Total impact with Ecoindicator99−(h,a), [points/m2] and Spriensma (2000)), which is an impact assessment method that proposes a combined single indicator for damages caused on human health, ecosystem quality and non-renewable resources.
R˙r,u,p is the quantity of resource r consumed by process u, and b˙ + b,u,p is ˙ ˙ the quantity of product b. Rr and Bb are the required quantities of resource r or product b that have to be converted or produced, and are defined according to the problem to be solved. Using this layer approach for each source/sink, product and resource allows for systematically identifying the potential recyclings within the action system. The fu,p are the decision variables of the slave © 2014 by EPFL Press Industrial ecology and supply chain synthesis 35 MILP sub-problem.
Technical inefficiency and waste of renewable resources would thus be promoted. This problem is directly linked to the strict single-product based cradle-to-gate approach using 1 MJ of SNG as the FU. The second reason is that the SNG production from lignocellulosic biomass is divided in two phases: the wood chips production and its conversion to SNG. The latter is thereby of particular interest, since it is mainly at this step that engineering decisions that impact the environment are taken. Using 1 MJ of wood as FU instead of 1 MJ of SNG fixes the impact of wood production to a constant value that does not change depending on the considered scenario, while keeping the impact of logistics, which depends on the average collection distance related to the plant size.
Designing Renewable Energy Systems: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach by Leda Gerber