By T. Kamusella
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Extra resources for Creating Languages in Central Europe during the Last Millennium
Languages being part of the political power struggle, like his Castilian (Spanish) counterpart, the Portuguese King Alfonso III replaced Latin with Portuguese in court life and administration during the thirteenth century (Anderson 2000: 185; Schlösser 2005: 44–45). The success of Portuguese as a language was decisively underscored by the Portuguese conquest of Brazil and the construction of the maritime empire that rivaled that of Spain. The conquistadors who created Portugal stemmed from what today is the region of Galicia in the northwestern corner of Spain, immediately north of Portugal.
By 1492, after eight centuries of coexistence (Dodds, Menocal, and Balbale 2008; Lévi-Provençal 1938), Islam, along with Arabic and its script, had been expelled (together with Jews) southward from Iberia to North Africa. com - licensed to New York University - Waldmann Dental Library - PalgraveConnect - 2015-01-12 28 29 Ottoman seizure of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 meant the gradual replacement of Christianity with Islam in Asia Minor (Anatolia), the Middle East and in many areas of the Balkan Peninsula (but importantly, with the retaining of tolerated Christian and Jewish minorities, as previously in Islamic Iberia).
Islam, a new monotheist religion of universalistic aspirations founded in the seventh century, successfully contested Christianity’s hold on the populations around the Mediterranean. ) Like Christianity, Islam came with its own holy book, the Qur’an, written in the Arabic language and script. By the turn of the ninth century, the Islamic Caliphate extended from Central Asia (where it clashed with China), through Arabia and North Africa to Iberia. The official and religious use of Arabic gradually extinguished Latin and Greek there, especially in North Africa (or confined both languages to tolerated minority Christian communities), thus creating a linguistic-cum-religious divide that shattered the former Roman cultural and institutional (already weakened) commonality of the Mediterranean world (Ruthven and Nanji 2004: 36–39).
Creating Languages in Central Europe during the Last Millennium by T. Kamusella