By Steven J. Osterlind
Developing try goods for standardized exams of accomplishment, skill, and flair is a role of huge value. The interpretability of a test's ratings flows at once from the standard of its goods and routines. Concomitant with rating interpretability is the proposal that together with purely conscientiously crafted goods on a try out is the first approach in which the expert try out developer reduces undesirable errors variance, or error of size, and thereby raises a try out score's reliability. the purpose of this whole publication is to extend the try out constructor's understanding of this resource of dimension blunders, after which to explain equipment for picking and minimizing it in the course of merchandise development and later evaluation. people concerned with evaluate are keenly conscious of the elevated realization given to substitute codecs for attempt goods in recent times. but, in lots of writers' zeal to be `curriculum-relevant' or `authentic' or `realistic', the goods are usually constructed likely with out wakeful idea to the interpretations that could be garnered from them. This ebook argues that the structure for such substitute goods and routines additionally calls for rigor of their development or even bargains a few ideas, as one bankruptcy is dedicated to those substitute codecs. This e-book addresses significant concerns in developing attempt goods by way of targeting 4 rules. First, it describes the features and services of try goods. A moment function of this ebook is the presentation of editorial guidance for writing attempt goods in all of the widely used merchandise codecs, together with constructed-response codecs and function exams. a 3rd point of this booklet is the presentation of equipment for selecting the standard of attempt goods. ultimately, this booklet offers a compendium of significant matters approximately try out goods, together with strategies for ordering goods in a try, moral and felony issues over utilizing copyrighted try goods, merchandise scoring schemes, computer-generated goods and extra.
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Extra resources for Constructing Test Items: Multiple-Choice, Constructed-Response, Performance and Other Formats (Evaluation in Education and Human Services)
This concern becomes particularly acute when tests are translated from one language to another or are used with examinees whose cultural background is different from the cultural background of the group for whom it was originally written. When test items are translated literally into another language, new dimensions of meaning arise which can distort the original. The assumption of unidimensionality of any particular test item may be Definition, Purpose, and Characteristics 47 violated by literal translation of test items.
Nearly all tests that are electronically scored by an optical scanning device contain only dichotomously scored test items. Some exploratory work is being done to enable optical scanners and their concomitant computers to read multiple response formats, including some kinds of essay examinations. Presently, the application of this work is quite limited, but such work does promise exciting vistas for new testing formats in the future. Definition, Purpose, and Characteristics 33 Putting Together the Parts of an Item Thus far, we have discussed several constituent parts of test items, including the stem, response alternatives, text, graphics, and more.
If a test item were a perfectly reliable measure of an attribute, persons at any given ability level would have either a zero chance or a 100% chance of responding correctly to the test item. The ICCs in the figures reflect this probability. 3 is described as ascending, meaning that this particular ICC always increases, and linear, noting that it is a straight line because one unit of increase in the attribute means a corresponding one unit increase in the probability of responding correctly. However, in practice the relationship between ability and probability of a correct response to an item is more complex.
Constructing Test Items: Multiple-Choice, Constructed-Response, Performance and Other Formats (Evaluation in Education and Human Services) by Steven J. Osterlind