Read e-book online Consciousness and the Social Brain PDF

By Michael S. A. Graziano

ISBN-10: 0199928649

ISBN-13: 9780199928644

What's cognizance and the way can a mind, a trifling choice of neurons, create it? In awareness and the Social mind, Princeton neuroscientist Michael Graziano lays out an audacious new thought to account for the inner most secret of all of them. The human mind has developed a posh circuitry that enables it to be socially clever. This social equipment has basically simply all started to be studied intimately. One functionality of this circuitry is to characteristic information to others: to compute that individual Y knows factor X. In Graziano's idea, the equipment that attributes understanding to others additionally attributes it to oneself. harm that equipment and also you disrupt your personal information. Graziano discusses the technological know-how, the proof, the philosophy, and the dazzling implications of this new conception.

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Several questions arose: How quickly must hypothermia be initiated after ischemia to be neuroprotective? For how long and to what depth should it be administered? Is the resulting neuroprotection temporary or permanent? Using a model of 10-min normothermic global forebrain ischemia by the two-vessel occlusion model, we compared the neuropathological outcome when cranial cooling to 30°C was begun at either 5 or 30 min following the ischemic insult, and was maintained for 3 h (38). In these initial studies, in which only a 3-d survival was permitted, 50% protection of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was achieved when cooling was begun at 5 min postischemia, but cooling was ineffective if deferred until 30 min.

J. Neurochem. 24, 311–316. 13. Rosomoff H. L. (1957) Hypothermia and cerebral vascular lesions. II. Experimental middle cerebral artery interruption followed by induction of hypothermia. AMA Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 78, 454–464. 14. Rosomoff H. L. (1959) Experimental brain injury during hypothermia. J. Neurosurg. 16, 177–187. 15. Connoly J. , Boyd R. , and Calvin J. W. (1962) The protective effect of hypothermia in cerebral ischemia: experimental and clinical application by selective brain cooling in the human.

D. (1998) The influence of altered brain temperature in cerebral ischemia. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management (Ginsberg M. D. ), Blackwell Science, Malden, pp. 287–307. 32 Ginsberg and Belayev 11. Rosomoff H. L. and Holaday D. A. (1954) Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermia. Am. J. Physiol. 179, 85–88. 12. , and Siesjo B. K. (1975) The effect of induced hypothermia upon oxygen consumption in the rat brain. J. Neurochem. 24, 311–316.

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Consciousness and the Social Brain by Michael S. A. Graziano

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