By editor-in-chief, Charlene A. McQueen
In additional than a decade because the e-book of the 1st version of finished Toxicology, an explosive raise within the wisdom of the results of chemical and actual brokers on organic structures has resulted in an elevated figuring out of standard mobile capabilities and the results in their perturbations. Revised and up-to-date to mirror new advances in toxicology learn and together with content material through a number of the top researchers within the box, the 14-volume moment variation of complete Toxicology is still the superior source for toxicologists in academia, medication, and firms. instead of giving an alphabetical directory of compounds, accomplished Toxicology moment version offers a distinct organ-systems constitution that permits the consumer to discover the poisonous results of assorted components on every one human procedure, assisting in offering diagnoses and proving crucial in events the place the poisonous substance is unknown yet its results on a approach are seen. finished Toxicology moment variation is the main entire and worthwhile toxicology paintings to be had to researchers at the present time. Contents up to date and revised to mirror advancements in toxicology researchOrganized with a different organ-system approachFeatures complete colour throughoutAvailable electronically on sciencedirect.com, in addition to in a limited-edition print model
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Extra info for Comprehensive Toxicology - Fourteen-Volume Set electronic resource
An alternative to the NOAEL approach, referred to as the benchmark dose, attempts to use all of the experimental data to fit one or more dose–response curves. These curves are then used to calculate a benchmark dose, which is the statistical General Overview of Toxicology lower bound on a dose corresponding to a specified level of risk. Although subchronic studies are frequently the primary source of experimental data to determine both the NOAEL and the benchmark dose, these approaches are frequently applied to other types of toxicity testing protocols, such as that for developmental toxicity.
When extrapolating dose from small animals such as mice, this equates to approximately a factor of 10. The second main principle is that exposure of experimental animals to toxic substances in large doses is a necessary and valid method of identifying possible hazards to humans. This principle is based on the classical quantal dose–response relationship. Practical considerations require that the number of animals used in toxicology experiments will be small compared with the size of human populations at risk.
Initiated, precancerous cells may be present in tissues for many years, but without additional stimulation to undergo division will not become cancerous. Furthermore, frequently such transformed cells express surface proteins which mark the cell as abnormal or foreign to the body, such that the immune system will destroy it. However, if this immune surveillance is ineffective or incomplete, the precancerous cell may be stimulated by other factors to proliferate into tumors and eventually spread (metastasize) to distant sites.
Comprehensive Toxicology - Fourteen-Volume Set electronic resource by editor-in-chief, Charlene A. McQueen