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By Jung-Der Wang

ISBN-10: 9810248016

ISBN-13: 9789810248017

ISBN-10: 9812775722

ISBN-13: 9789812775726

...this e-book simplifies the layout and inferences of human observational reviews into varieties: descriptive and causal

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Since deductive methods are defined by common logical reasoning, one can be sure that if the premise is true, then the end statement is true. The method of conjecture and refutation is a process of proposing hypotheses and trying to falsify each one of them. Although one can never be sure that a conjecture is true, one can tentatively conclude that a hypothesis which stands firm after many empirical tests is nearest to the truth compared with those refuted. A refutational attitude causes one to always consider alternative hypotheses and look for evidence contradictory to the hypothesis.

During one's refutation attempt, one may fail to falsify the hypothesis. In this situation, the primary hypothesis seems to be corroborated and corresponds well with the facts. However, one must still examine the relevancy of our refutation attempt and analyze whether the range of consistency of our hypothesis can be expanded in time and place. Scientists believe a priori that natural laws exist and are universally true. Consequently, in scientific research, our refutation attempt should also adhere to these beliefs in determining degree of corroboration.

With a pluralistic approach, one will less likely neglect any important etiologic factor. Moreover, occasionally, a consultation of a specialist in the field can shed light on a discovery. The structure of the DNA double helix proposed by Crick and Watson (1968) was developed from consulting with Pauling on the concept of hydrogen bonding. Pauling used this same idea to construct the alpha—helix structure of proteins. Traditionally, inductivists believe that certain rules must be followed to form a hypothesis; this is generally summarized as Mill's five rules of induction (Copi, 1972).

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Basic Principles and Practical Applications of Epidemiological Research (Quantitative Sciences on Biology and Medicine) by Jung-Der Wang

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